s and Tactics

by Gerard I. Nierenberg       

   WHAT YOU DO IN A NEGOTIATION TO GET THE OTEHR SIDE TO REACT, to get them to move, to cover the distance in the negotiation is what we call Strategies and Tactics. Strategies are long-term moves to achieve your objective. Tactics, on the other hand, are short-term moves that implement your strategies.
   Proper knowledge and application of negotiating skills and techniques require that you know the full extent of the available strategies and tactics. Strategies and tactics can be divided into three categories:

  • "When" strategies and tactics depend on time to achieve change in the negotiation.
  • "How" strategies and tactics deal with methods.
  • "Where" strategies and tactics deal with places used to achieve change in the negotiation.

   The prepared negotiator understands what the strategies and tactics can accomplish by understanding a variety of real-life examples. Do not limit yourself to examples in your chosen field. Creative sales negotiation requires you to change levels and points of view. Your customers are not "products" from a single mold. Each has a unique combination of needs and experiences that you must understand. Learn all you can about the needs of kings and commoners, of babies and octogenarians, and continue to expand your list as long as you live. You never know when the information will come in handy.
   Negotiation at the planning stage envisions the various strategies and tactics that may be most appropriate to the negotiation at hand. Be prepared to change your strategies and tactics as you observe and evaluate the opposer's reactions. Feedback mechanisms available to you are composed of nonverbal communication, such as body language, the intellectual content or meaning of the response, and the meta-talk, the hidden meaning of the verbal response.
   Climates are the feelings or environments that we or others create during the negotiating process. Intentionally or unintentionally, we all create the physical and emotional climates that surround us. Good playwrights are skilled at "setting the stage," at creating an environment in which the actions of the characters seem logical.
   The master sales negotiator must understand the nature of and the differences between climates. What you say, how you say it, what you look like, and many other factors are involved in creating the climates during a negotiation. You have the opportunity to make people work with you in a supportive climate, or you can unknowingly create a negative and defensive climate that will block your success in negotiation.
   Your ability to create and control the proper positive climate in a negotiation can be the determining factor in your success. Therefore, the number of possible climates, their division into positive or negative environments, and the individual components that make up the identifiable climates are a vital part of the negotiator's training.

To contact Gerard I. Nierenberg, write to:
Negotiation Institute, Inc., 10 East 40th Street, Suite 1308
New York, NY 10016
Phone 212.447.0077 Fax 212.447.7880
E-mail: [email protected]
Or visit his web site: